Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_top position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_bottom position below the menu.

Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_bottom position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_top position below the search.
الكيمياء الحياتية
Nuha Nihad. A. Aburahma

Supervisor Name: Dr. Hathama R. Hasan   &     Dr. Abdul kareem A. AL-Kazaz


Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of preventable blindness, is associated with many systemic factors that contribute to the development and progression of this microvascular complication of diabetes. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plays an important role in retinal leukostasis, adhesion of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium, a common pathogenic feature of diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: Serum from 68 individuals with type 2 DM, 38 with and 30 without proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 20 healthy subjects (controls) were investigated for the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercially available kits (R&D Systems, USA)

Results: This study comprised 2 patient groups and one control group, there was significant increase in the level of serum TNF-alpha in all patients group (p<0.05) when compared with controls. On comparing patient groups with each other, there is no significant difference between groups (p>0.05).