Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_top position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_bottom position below the menu.

Sample Sidebar Module

This is a sample module published to the sidebar_bottom position, using the -sidebar module class suffix. There is also a sidebar_top position below the search.
قسم علوم الأرض

Salih M. AWADH1and Rana Abbas Ali2

1,2Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IRAQ

 

Abstract

Abrasives are substances, both natural and synthetic, used to grind, polish, abrade, scour, clean, or otherwise remove solid material, usually by rubbing action (as in a grinding wheel).There is evidence that some sort of grinding machine sawed stones as early as 4000 BC in Egypt. The real expansion of abrasives use coincided with the beginning of metallurgy in the Middle East around 2000 BC.The earliest confirmed use of abrasives for grinding metal comes from a steel dagger found along with a sharpening stone that dated to 1500 BC.This study aims to meet many goals such as following:Applying the petrotechnologyon Iraqi raw materials (Glass sand, porcelanite and phosphates) via a set of laboratory experiments to synthesis a new product can be used for polishing the microstructures of metals, metallic alloys, sulfides. sulfates and oxides ore minerals. Mineralogy of 1-Abrasive materials:Glass Sand (Quartz),Porcelanite opal(C-T),Phosphates: Fluorapatite Ca10(PO4)6 F2 (in sedimentary rocks),Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)12 (in teeth and bones),Francolite [Ca9.5 (Na H3O)0.5 (PO4, CO3F, SO4)6 F2](high fluorine).Phosphates for support human teeth and its hardness similar to teeth hardness  so that remove sinter or calcification from teeth surface.Animal bones(cow).2-Materials that need to be polished:Ore minerals, Human teeth.Geochemistry analyses of abrasive materials include Major oxides ,Trace elements that are useful for helping us to give a decision whether the abrasive material is suitable or not.